Category Archives: NEWS

Meaning of the Official Seal of Bataan


My grade 3 nephew asked me to explain the meaning of the symbols used in the official seal of the province of Bataan. I tried googling for the answers using “official seal of Bataan meaning” as search word but in vain. The official website of Bataan doesn’t also give a hint.

Until I’ve come upon this website: which features a book entitled “SYMBOLS OF THE STATE: Republic of The Philippines” published in 1975 by the Bureau of Local Government under the Department of Local Government and Community Development.

Meaning of the Official Seal of Bataan

According to the ‘Symbols of the State,’ the meaning of the Official Seal of Bataan is as follow:

  • Flaming Sword – the Flaming Sword of Bataan, symbol of the bravery of our soldiers during World War II and the guerrilla movement that followed later.
  • The three golden stars – represent the three geographical regions that contributed their sons in the bloody resistance of World War II.
  • Red Panel – depicts the battles fought in Bataan and in the country.
  • Blue Panel – depicts the peace of the night that followed.

Now, my nephew has an answer to his assignment and all Bataenos know what their provincial seal signify.

#FilipiKnow #1Bataan


Bureau of Local Government. (1975). Symbols of The State: Republic of The Philippines, p. 188-189. Retrieved from


Seal of Bataan Meaning



Division Seminar Workshop, inilunsad: 200 SPA, lumahok

This straight news I wrote (output in Filipino) for the recently culminated Division Seminar Workshop for School Paper Advisers won first place.

School Paper Advisers

BALANGA CITY, Bataan – Humigit kumulang sa dalawang daang School Paper Advisers (SPA) mula sa elementarya at sekondarya ang lumahok sa inilunsad na Division Seminar-Workshop for School Paper Advisers na ginanap sa Crown Royale Hotel, Agosto 19.

Layunin ng nasabing gawain na bigyan ng karagdagang kaalaman ang mga school paper advisers tungkol sa iba’t ibang kategorya ng Campus Journalism.

Tinalakay ni G. Emmanuel Zacharias sa unang araw ng seminar-workshop ang School Paper Management. Binigyang diin naman ni G. Ben P. Medina ang News Writing at Editorial Writing. Bago matapos ang kanyang panayam, ipinakita niya ang pagkakahalintulad at pagkakaiba ng News Writing, Feature Writing, at Editorial Writing. Ipinaliwanag naman ni Bb. Annabelle Ambrocio ang wastong gamit ng mga simbolo sa Copyreading at ang mabisang paggawa ng Headline.

Sa ikalawang araw ng seminar-workshop, ipinakita ni G. Edgar Valencia ang mga dapat isaalang-alang sa pagkuha ng larawan sa Photojournalism. Ipinaliwanag din niya ang mga teknikal na aspeto ng kamera. Ipinakita naman ni Dr. Andres Matawaran ang mga salik na nakapaloob sa Feature Writing at Science Feature. Sinabi niya na “ang Science Feature ay isang Feature article na may mas maraming impormasyon.” Binigyang-pansin naman ni G. Joel Castro sa kanyang panayam ukol sa Cartooning kung paano ituro sa mga bata ang tamang pagbuo ng konsepto.

Ibinahagi ni G. Ronaldo Punla sa huling araw ang mga Sports-lingo na ginagamit sa Sports Writing. Sinabi niya na dapat ipakita ng isang Sports Writer ang mga “action” sa sports upang makuha ang interes ng mambabasa. Isa rin sa mga resource speaker si G. Mark Sherwin Balor na nagpanayam ukol sa Collaborative Writing.

Matapos ang lahat ng panayam sa ikatlong araw ay magkakaroon ng election ng Bataan Association of Elementary and Secondary School Paper Advisers (BAESSPA) Officers sa ganap na 3:30 – 5:00 ng hapon.

Ang punong-abala para sa tatlong-araw na Division Seminar-Workshop ay si Gng. Mila D. Calma, Education Program Supervisor ng Filipino.

Republic Act No. 10175

S. No. 2796

H. No. 5808

Republic of the Philippines
Congress of the Philippines
Metro Manila
Fifteenth Congress

Second Regular Session

Begun and held in Metro Manila, on Monday the Twenty-fifth day of July two thousand eleven.

[ Republic Act No. 10175 ]


Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the Philippines in Congress assembled:


SECTION 1. Title. — This Act shall be known as the “Cybercrime Prevention Act of 2012″.

SEC. 2. Declaration of Policy. — The State recognizes the vital role of information and communications industries such as content production, telecommunications, broadcasting electronic commerce, and data processing, in the nation’s overall social and economic development. The State also recognizes the importance of providing an environment conducive to the development, acceleration, and rational application and exploitation of information and communications technology (ICT) to attain free, easy, and intelligible access to exchange and/or delivery of information; and the need to protect and safeguard the integrity of computer, computer and communications systems, networks, and databases, and the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of information and data stored therein, from all forms of misuse, abuse, and illegal access by making punishable under the law such conduct or conducts. In this light, the State shall adopt sufficient powers to effectively prevent and combat such offenses by facilitating their detection, investigation, and prosecution at both the domestic and international levels, and by providing arrangements for fast and reliable international cooperation.

SEC. 3. Definition of Terms. — For purposes of this Act, the following terms are hereby defined as follows:

(a) Access refers to the instruction, communication with, storing data in, retrieving data from, or otherwise making use of any resources of a computer system or communication network.

(b) Alteration refers to the modification or change, in form or substance, of an existing computer data or program.

(c) Communication refers to the transmission of information through ICT media, including voice, video and other forms of data.

(d) Computer refers to an electronic, magnetic, optical, electrochemical, or other data processing or communications device, or grouping of such devices, capable of performing logical, arithmetic, routing, or storage functions and which includes any storage facility or equipment or communications facility or equipment directly related to or operating in conjunction with such device. It covers any type of computer device including devices with data processing capabilities like mobile phones, smart phones, computer networks and other devices connected to the internet.

(e) Computer data refers to any representation of facts, information, or concepts in a form suitable for processing in a computer system including a program suitable to cause a computer system to perform a function and includes electronic documents and/or electronic data messages whether stored in local computer systems or online.

(f) Computer program refers to a set of instructions executed by the computer to achieve intended results.

(g) Computer system refers to any device or group of interconnected or related devices, one or more of which, pursuant to a program, performs automated processing of data. It covers any type of device with data processing capabilities including, but not limited to, computers and mobile phones. The device consisting of hardware and software may include input, output and storage components which may stand alone or be connected in a network or other similar devices. It also includes computer data storage devices or media.

(h) Without right refers to either: (i) conduct undertaken without or in excess of authority; or (ii) conduct not covered by established legal defenses, excuses, court orders, justifications, or relevant principles under the law.

(i) Cyber refers to a computer or a computer network, the electronic medium in which online communication takes place.

(j) Critical infrastructure refers to the computer systems, and/or networks, whether physical or virtual, and/or the computer programs, computer data and/or traffic data so vital to this country that the incapacity or destruction of or interference with such system and assets would have a debilitating impact on security, national or economic security, national public health and safety, or any combination of those matters.

(k) Cybersecurity refers to the collection of tools, policies, risk management approaches, actions, training, best practices, assurance and technologies that can be used to protect the cyber environment and organization and user’s assets.

(l) Database refers to a representation of information, knowledge, facts, concepts, or instructions which are being prepared, processed or stored or have been prepared, processed or stored in a formalized manner and which are intended for use in a computer system.

(m) Interception refers to listening to, recording, monitoring or surveillance of the content of communications, including procuring of the content of data, either directly, through access and use of a computer system or indirectly, through the use of electronic eavesdropping or tapping devices, at the same time that the communication is occurring.

(n) Service provider refers to:

(1) Any public or private entity that provides to users of its service the ability to communicate by means of a computer system; and

(2) Any other entity that processes or stores computer data on behalf of such communication service or users of such service.

(o) Subscriber’s information refers to any information contained in the form of computer data or any other form that is held by a service provider, relating to subscribers of its services other than traffic or content data and by which identity can be established:

(1) The type of communication service used, the technical provisions taken thereto and the period of service;

(2) The subscriber’s identity, postal or geographic address, telephone and other access numbers, any assigned network address, billing and payment information, available on the basis of the service agreement or arrangement; and

(3) Any other available information on the site of the installation of communication equipment, available on the basis of the service agreement or arrangement.

(p) Traffic data or non-content data refers to any computer data other than the content of the communication including, but not limited to, the communication’s origin, destination, route, time, date, size, duration, or type of underlying service.


SEC. 4. Cybercrime Offenses. — The following acts constitute the offense of cybercrime punishable under this Act:

(a) Offenses against the confidentiality, integrity and availability of computer data and systems:

(1) Illegal Access. – The access to the whole or any part of a computer system without right.

(2) Illegal Interception. – The interception made by technical means without right of any non-public transmission of computer data to, from, or within a computer system including electromagnetic emissions from a computer system carrying such computer data.

(3) Data Interference. — The intentional or reckless alteration, damaging, deletion or deterioration of computer data, electronic document, or electronic data message, without right, including the introduction or transmission of viruses.

(4) System Interference. — The intentional alteration or reckless hindering or interference with the functioning of a computer or computer network by inputting, transmitting, damaging, deleting, deteriorating, altering or suppressing computer data or program, electronic document, or electronic data message, without right or authority, including the introduction or transmission of viruses.

(5) Misuse of Devices.

(i) The use, production, sale, procurement, importation, distribution, or otherwise making available, without right, of:

(aa) A device, including a computer program, designed or adapted primarily for the purpose of committing any of the offenses under this Act; or

(bb) A computer password, access code, or similar data by which the whole or any part of a computer system is capable of being accessed with intent that it be used for the purpose of committing any of the offenses under this Act.

(ii) The possession of an item referred to in paragraphs 5(i)(aa) or (bb) above with intent to use said devices for the purpose of committing any of the offenses under this section.

(6) Cyber-squatting. – The acquisition of a domain name over the internet in bad faith to profit, mislead, destroy reputation, and deprive others from registering the same, if such a domain name is:

(i) Similar, identical, or confusingly similar to an existing trademark registered with the appropriate government agency at the time of the domain name registration:

(ii) Identical or in any way similar with the name of a person other than the registrant, in case of a personal name; and

(iii) Acquired without right or with intellectual property interests in it.

(b) Computer-related Offenses:

(1) Computer-related Forgery. —

(i) The input, alteration, or deletion of any computer data without right resulting in inauthentic data with the intent that it be considered or acted upon for legal purposes as if it were authentic, regardless whether or not the data is directly readable and intelligible; or

(ii) The act of knowingly using computer data which is the product of computer-related forgery as defined herein, for the purpose of perpetuating a fraudulent or dishonest design.

(2) Computer-related Fraud. — The unauthorized input, alteration, or deletion of computer data or program or interference in the functioning of a computer system, causing damage thereby with fraudulent intent: Provided, That if no

damage has yet been caused, the penalty imposable shall be one (1) degree lower.

(3) Computer-related Identity Theft. – The intentional acquisition, use, misuse, transfer, possession, alteration or deletion of identifying information belonging to another, whether natural or juridical, without right: Provided, That if no damage has yet been caused, the penalty imposable shall be one (1) degree lower.

(c) Content-related Offenses:

(1) Cybersex. — The willful engagement, maintenance, control, or operation, directly or indirectly, of any lascivious exhibition of sexual organs or sexual activity, with the aid of a computer system, for favor or consideration.

(2) Child Pornography. — The unlawful or prohibited acts defined and punishable by Republic Act No. 9775 or the Anti-Child Pornography Act of 2009, committed through a computer system: Provided, That the penalty to be imposed shall be (1) one degree higher than that provided for in Republic Act No. 9775.

(3) Unsolicited Commercial Communications. — The transmission of commercial electronic communication with the use of computer system which seek to advertise, sell, or offer for sale products and services are prohibited unless:

(i) There is prior affirmative consent from the recipient; or

(ii) The primary intent of the communication is for service and/or administrative announcements from the sender to its existing users, subscribers or customers; or

(iii) The following conditions are present:

(aa) The commercial electronic communication contains a simple, valid, and reliable way for the recipient to reject. receipt of further commercial electronic messages (opt-out) from the same source;

(bb) The commercial electronic communication does not purposely disguise the source of the electronic message; and

(cc) The commercial electronic communication does not purposely include misleading information in any part of the message in order to induce the recipients to read the message.

(4) Libel. — The unlawful or prohibited acts of libel as defined in Article 355 of the Revised Penal Code, as amended, committed through a computer system or any other similar means which may be devised in the future.

SEC. 5. Other Offenses. — The following acts shall also constitute an offense:

(a) Aiding or Abetting in the Commission of Cybercrime. – Any person who willfully abets or aids in the commission of any of the offenses enumerated in this Act shall be held liable.

(b) Attempt in the Commission of Cybercrime. — Any person who willfully attempts to commit any of the offenses enumerated in this Act shall be held liable.

SEC. 6. All crimes defined and penalized by the Revised Penal Code, as amended, and special laws, if committed by, through and with the use of information and communications technologies shall be covered by the relevant provisions of this Act: Provided, That the penalty to be imposed shall be one (1) degree higher than that provided for by the Revised Penal Code, as amended, and special laws, as the case may be.

SEC. 7. Liability under Other Laws. — A prosecution under this Act shall be without prejudice to any liability for violation of any provision of the Revised Penal Code, as amended, or special laws.


SEC. 8. Penalties. — Any person found guilty of any of the punishable acts enumerated in Sections 4(a) and 4(b) of this Act shall be punished with imprisonment of prision mayor or a fine of at least Two hundred thousand pesos (PhP200,000.00) up to a maximum amount commensurate to the damage incurred or both.

Any person found guilty of the punishable act under Section 4(a)(5) shall be punished with imprisonment of prision mayor or a fine of not more than Five hundred thousand pesos (PhP500,000.00) or both.

If punishable acts in Section 4(a) are committed against critical infrastructure, the penalty of reclusion temporal or a fine of at least Five hundred thousand pesos (PhP500,000.00) up to maximum amount commensurate to the damage incurred or both, shall be imposed.

Any person found guilty of any of the punishable acts enumerated in Section 4(c)(1) of this Act shall be punished with imprisonment of prision mayor or a fine of at least Two hundred thousand pesos (PhP200,000.00) but not exceeding One million pesos (PhPl,000,000.00) or both.

Any person found guilty of any of the punishable acts enumerated in Section 4(c)(2) of this Act shall be punished with the penalties as enumerated in Republic Act No. 9775 or the “Anti-Child Pornography Act of 2009″: Provided, That the penalty to be imposed shall be one (1) degree higher than that provided for in Republic Act No. 9775, if committed through a computer system.

Any person found guilty of any of the punishable acts enumerated in Section 4(c)(3) shall be punished with imprisonment of arresto mayor or a fine of at least Fifty thousand pesos (PhP50,000.00) but not exceeding Two hundred fifty thousand pesos (PhP250,000.00) or both.

Any person found guilty of any of the punishable acts enumerated in Section 5 shall be punished with imprisonment one (1) degree lower than that of the prescribed penalty for the offense or a fine of at least One hundred thousand pesos (PhPl00,000.00) but not exceeding Five hundred thousand pesos (PhP500,000.00) or both.

SEC. 9. Corporate Liability. — When any of the punishable acts herein defined are knowingly committed on behalf of or for the benefit of a juridical person, by a natural person acting either individually or as part of an organ of the juridical person, who has a leading position within, based on: (a) a power of representation of the juridical person provided the act committed falls within the scope of such authority; (b) an authority to take decisions on behalf of the juridical person: Provided, That the act committed falls within the scope of such authority; or (c) an authority to exercise control within the juridical person, the juridical person shall be held liable for a fine equivalent to at least double the fines imposable in Section 7 up to a maximum of Ten million pesos (PhP10,000,000.00).

If the commission of any of the punishable acts herein defined was made possible due to the lack of supervision or control by a natural person referred to and described in the preceding paragraph, for the benefit of that juridical person by a natural person acting under its authority, the juridical person shall be held liable for a fine equivalent to at least double the fines imposable in Section 7 up to a maximum of Five million pesos (PhP5,000,000.00).

The liability imposed on the juridical person shall be without prejudice to the criminal liability of the natural person who has committed the offense.


SEC. 10. Law Enforcement Authorities. — The National Bureau of Investigation (NBI) and the Philippine National Police (PNP) shall be responsible for the efficient and effective law enforcement of the provisions of this Act. The NBI and the PNP shall organize a cybercrime unit or center manned by special investigators to exclusively handle cases involving violations of this Act.

SEC. 11. Duties of Law Enforcement Authorities. — To ensure that the technical nature of cybercrime and its prevention is given focus and considering the procedures involved for international cooperation, law enforcement authorities specifically the computer or technology crime divisions or units responsible for the investigation of cybercrimes are required to submit timely and regular reports including pre-operation, post-operation and investigation results and such other documents as may be required to the Department of Justice (DOJ) for review and monitoring.

SEC. 12. Real-Time Collection of Traffic Data. — Law enforcement authorities, with due cause, shall be authorized to collect or record by technical or electronic means traffic data in real-time associated with specified communications transmitted by means of a computer system.

Traffic data refer only to the communication’s origin, destination, route, time, date, size, duration, or type of underlying service, but not content, nor identities.

All other data to be collected or seized or disclosed will require a court warrant.

Service providers are required to cooperate and assist law enforcement authorities in the collection or recording of the above-stated information.

The court warrant required under this section shall only be issued or granted upon written application and the examination under oath or affirmation of the applicant and the witnesses he may produce and the showing: (1) that there are reasonable grounds to believe that any of the crimes enumerated hereinabove has been committed, or is being committed, or is about to be committed: (2) that there are reasonable grounds to believe that evidence that will be obtained is essential to the conviction of any person for, or to the solution of, or to the prevention of, any such crimes; and (3) that there are no other means readily available for obtaining such evidence.

SEC. 13. Preservation of Computer Data. — The integrity of traffic data and subscriber information relating to communication services provided by a service provider shall be preserved for a minimum period of six (6) months from the date of the transaction. Content data shall be similarly preserved for six (6) months from the date of receipt of the order from law enforcement authorities requiring its preservation.

Law enforcement authorities may order a one-time extension for another six (6) months: Provided, That once computer data preserved, transmitted or stored by a service provider is used as evidence in a case, the mere furnishing to such service provider of the transmittal document to the Office of the Prosecutor shall be deemed a notification to preserve the computer data until the termination of the case.

The service provider ordered to preserve computer data shall keep confidential the order and its compliance.

SEC. 14. Disclosure of Computer Data. — Law enforcement authorities, upon securing a court warrant, shall issue an order requiring any person or service provider to disclose or submit subscriber’s information, traffic data or relevant data in his/its possession or control within seventy-two (72) hours from receipt of the order in relation to a valid complaint officially docketed and assigned for investigation and the disclosure is necessary and relevant for the purpose of investigation.

SEC. 15. Search, Seizure and Examination of Computer Data. — Where a search and seizure warrant is properly issued, the law enforcement authorities shall likewise have the following powers and duties.

Within the time period specified in the warrant, to conduct interception, as defined in this Act, and:

(a) To secure a computer system or a computer data storage medium;

(b) To make and retain a copy of those computer data secured;

(c) To maintain the integrity of the relevant stored computer data;

(d) To conduct forensic analysis or examination of the computer data storage medium; and

(e) To render inaccessible or remove those computer data in the accessed computer or computer and communications network.

Pursuant thereof, the law enforcement authorities may order any person who has knowledge about the functioning of the computer system and the measures to protect and preserve the computer data therein to provide, as is reasonable, the necessary information, to enable the undertaking of the search, seizure and examination.

Law enforcement authorities may request for an extension of time to complete the examination of the computer data storage medium and to make a return thereon but in no case for a period longer than thirty (30) days from date of approval by the court.

SEC. 16. Custody of Computer Data. — All computer data, including content and traffic data, examined under a proper warrant shall, within forty-eight (48) hours after the expiration of the period fixed therein, be deposited with the court in a sealed package, and shall be accompanied by an affidavit of the law enforcement authority executing it stating the dates and times covered by the examination, and the law enforcement authority who may access the deposit, among other relevant data. The law enforcement authority shall also certify that no duplicates or copies of the whole or any part thereof have been made, or if made, that all such duplicates or copies are included in the package deposited with the court. The package so deposited shall not be opened, or the recordings replayed, or used in evidence, or then contents revealed, except upon order of the court, which shall not be granted except upon motion, with due notice and opportunity to be heard to the person or persons whose conversation or communications have been recorded.

SEC. 17. Destruction of Computer Data. — Upon expiration of the periods as provided in Sections 13 and 15, service providers and law enforcement authorities, as the case may be, shall immediately and completely destroy the computer data subject of a preservation and examination.

SEC. 18. Exclusionary Rule. — Any evidence procured without a valid warrant or beyond the authority of the same shall be inadmissible for any proceeding before any court or tribunal.

SEC. 19. Restricting or Blocking Access to Computer Data. — When a computer data is prima facie found to be in violation of the provisions of this Act, the DOJ shall issue an order to restrict or block access to such computer data.

SEC. 20. Noncompliance. — Failure to comply with the provisions of Chapter IV hereof specifically the orders from law enforcement authorities shall be punished as a violation of Presidential Decree No. 1829 with imprisonment of prision correctional in its maximum period or a fine of One hundred thousand pesos (Php100,000.00) or both, for each and every noncompliance with an order issued by law enforcement authorities.


SEC. 21. Jurisdiction. — The Regional Trial Court shall have jurisdiction over any violation of the provisions of this Act. including any violation committed by a Filipino national regardless of the place of commission. Jurisdiction shall lie if any of the elements was committed within the Philippines or committed with the use of any computer system wholly or partly situated in the country, or when by such commission any damage is caused to a natural or juridical person who, at the time the offense was committed, was in the Philippines.

There shall be designated special cybercrime courts manned by specially trained judges to handle cybercrime cases.


Sec. 22. General Principles Relating to International Cooperation — All relevant international instruments on international cooperation in criminal matters, arrangements agreed on the basis of uniform or reciprocal legislation, and domestic laws, to the widest extent possible for the purposes of investigations or proceedings concerning criminal offenses related to computer systems and data, or for the collection of evidence in electronic form of a criminal, offense shall be given full force and effect.


SEC 23. Department of Justice (DOJ). — There is hereby created an Office of Cybercrime within the DOJ designated as the central authority in all matters related to international mutual assistance and extradition.

SEC. 24. Cybercrime Investigation and Coordinating Center. — There is hereby created, within thirty (30) days from the effectivity of this Act, an inter-agency body to be known as the Cybercrime Investigation and Coordinating Center (CICC), under the administrative supervision of the Office of the President, for policy coordination among concerned agencies and for the formulation and enforcement of the national cybersecurity plan.

SEC. 25. Composition. — The CICC shall be headed by the Executive Director of the Information and Communications Technology Office under the Department of Science and Technology (ICTO-DOST) as Chairperson with the Director of the NBI as Vice Chairperson; the Chief of the PNP; Head of the DOJ Office of Cybercrime; and one (1) representative from the private sector and academe, as members. The CICC shall be manned by a secretariat of selected existing personnel and representatives from the different participating agencies.

SEC. 26. Powers and Functions. — The CICC shall have the following powers and functions:

(a) To formulate a national cybersecurity plan and extend immediate assistance for the suppression of real-time commission of cybercrime offenses through a computer emergency response team (CERT);

(b) To coordinate the preparation of appropriate and effective measures to prevent and suppress cybercrime activities as provided for in this Act;

(c) To monitor cybercrime cases being bandied by participating law enforcement and prosecution agencies;

(d) To facilitate international cooperation on intelligence, investigations, training and capacity building related to cybercrime prevention, suppression and prosecution;

(e) To coordinate the support and participation of the business sector, local government units and nongovernment organizations in cybercrime prevention programs and other

related projects;

(f) To recommend the enactment of appropriate laws, issuances, measures and policies;

(g) To call upon any government agency to render assistance in the accomplishment of the CICC’s mandated tasks and functions; and

(h) To perform all other matters related to cybercrime prevention and suppression, including capacity building and such other functions and duties as may be necessary for the proper implementation of this Act.


SEC. 27. Appropriations. — The amount of Fifty million pesos (PhP50,000,000_00) shall be appropriated annually for the implementation of this Act.

SEC. 28. Implementing Rules and Regulations. — The ICTO-DOST, the DOJ and the Department of the Interior and Local Government (DILG) shall jointly formulate the necessary rules and regulations within ninety (90) days from approval of this Act, for its effective implementation.

SEC. 29. Separability Clause — If any provision of this Act is held invalid, the other provisions not affected shall remain in full force and effect.

SEC. 30. Repealing Clause. — All laws, decrees or rules inconsistent with this Act are hereby repealed or modified accordingly. Section 33(a) of Republic Act No. 8792 or the “Electronic Commerce Act” is hereby modified accordingly.

SEC. 31. Effectivity. — This Act shall take effect fifteen (15) days after the completion of its publication in the Official Gazette or in at least two (2) newspapers of general circulation.


Speaker of the House
of Representatives

President of the Senate

This Act which is a consolidation of Senate Bill No. 2796 and House Bill No. 5808 was finally passed by the Senate and the House of Representatives on June 5, 2012 and June 4, 2012, respectively.

Secretary General
House of Representatives

Secretary of the Senate

Approved: SEP 12 2012

President of the Philippines

Pope explains what the opening lines of the Apocalypse can teach us about prayer

The Pope made a short visit to the Vatican to lead Wednesday’s general audience. With roughly 7,000 people in attendance, the Pope talked about the opening lines of the Apocalypse, by explaining the power of prayer. Benedict XVI said  prayer is much more than just words and requests, but rather it’s a way to speak with God and to listen to Him. After the general audience, the Pope returned to his summer residence of Castel Gandolfo.


Dear Brothers and Sisters,

“Today we consider the theme of prayer as found at the start of the Book of Revelation, also known as the Apocalypse.  In some ways, it is a difficult book, but it contains many riches.  Even the opening verses of the Book contain a great deal: they tell us that prayer means, above all, listening to the God who speaks to us.

Today, amid the din of so many useless words, many people have lost the habit of listening, even to God’s word.  The opening lines of the Apocalypse teach us that prayer is not just more words, asking God to grant our various needs, but rather it must begin as praise to God for his love, and for his gift of Jesus Christ, who has brought us strength, hope and salvation.

We are to welcome Jesus into our lives, to proclaim our “Yes!” to Christ and to nourish and deepen our Christian living.  Constant prayer will reveal to us the meaning of God’s presence in our lives and in history.  Prayer with others, liturgical prayer in particular, will deepen our awareness of the crucified and risen Jesus in our midst.  Thus, the more we know, love and follow Christ, the more we will want to meet him in prayer, for he is the peace, hope and strength of our lives.

I am pleased to welcome all the English-speaking pilgrims and visitors present today, including those from England, Indonesia, Japan, the Philippines, and the United States.  I am especially pleased to welcome the group of Missionary Sisters Servants of the Holy Spirit as well as the young men and women of the Focolare Movement who have been participating in this year’s Genfest in Budapest.  Dear young people, you have taken to heart Christ’s call to promote unity in the human family by courageously building bridges.

I therefore encourage you: be strong in your Catholic faith; and let the simple joy, the pure love, and the profound peace that come from the encounter with Jesus Christ make you radiant witnesses of the Good News before the young people of your own lands.  God bless all of you abundantly!”




“The Crucible” [도가니 — Dogani]

“The Crucible” [도가니], is a South Korean Movie (originally a Novel written  Gong Ji-Young) based on a true story of deaf students at Gwangju Inhwa School who were sexually abused by the Head Masters and a teacher in the early 2000.

The children lost the case. However, the film has sparked public outcry over lenient court rulings, prompting police to reopen the case and lawmakers to introduce bills for the human rights of the vulnerable.

After watching the film, I was able to come up with this aphorism:

Some says that we should change the world. Still others, says that we should not change the world but our attitudes. But I say, “we should neither change the world nor our attitudes. we should just not let the world change us!”

I pray that all those who have the chance to watch it will be moved; that the people who were wronged be justified; and the people who were involved in this crime against the helpless and hopeless children be punished accordingly.

Below are some links to the film and to the original case.

Official trailer:

McDonald’s Foods: Indecomposable?

Have you ever eaten at McDonald’s? Are you still eating at McDonald’s? Will you still eat at McDonald’s? Let us see your answer after you watch this short documentary.

Over the course of years, I’ve been hearing that McDonald’s foods are indecomposable. I don’t wanna believe. Until i found this video over the internet and which I immediately downloaded (and I hope it does not bear copyright infringement policy or protection whatsoever). I tried the experiment myself and I got the same result as this video below manifests. I hope you may be able to enjoy the video and try to do the experiment yourself. Dare? Watch it!
This video is a documentary clip created by Morgan Spurlock, an American independent filmmaker  who also directed and starred “Super Size Me” which is a 2004 American documentary film that follows a 30-day period from February 1 to March 2, 2003 during which he claims to eat only McDonald’s food. The film documents this lifestyle’s drastic effect on Spurlock’s physical and psychological well-being, and explores the fast food industry’s corporate influence, including how it encourages poor nutrition for its own profit.


by Hark Herald C. Sarmiento

In this world of ours where we live in a culture of discrimination and prejudices, homosexuals, especially the gays, often become the victims.

“Galit ako sa bakla [I hate gays],” a friend told me once and it totally irked me. I was disappointed because he failed to accept that homosexuality is an example of normal variation in human sexuality, rather than an abnormality of some sort. As human beings, sexuality is part of our system. It is our tendency to be attracted to another person (that may be towards the opposite sex, to the same sex, to either sex, to all gender identities), or not being attracted to anyone in a sexual manner (Wikipedia, 2011).

Many people agree and tag the homosexuals as promiscuous especially when it comes to sex. They are associated with controversies that involve pedophilia, drugs and other indecent practices. While many view them this way, I as an individual would still like to give these people the benefit of the doubt.

World-renown writers like Sir Francis Bacon, painters like Leonardo da Vinci, Michel Foucault in the field of Philosophy, actress and comedian Ellen DeGeneres, actor Tom Hulce who played the role of Mozart in Amadeus, and musicians like Elton John, are just some of the fine examples of extraordinary homosexuals who are important role models for both homo- and heterosexuals, and play a vital function in dispelling harmful myths and stereotypes.

If this is the case, why do these prejudiced people treat homosexuals cruelly presuming knowledge of another person based upon perceived characteristics such as appearance, clothing, tone of voice, and accompaniment by and behavior with other people? Here’s where the problem of homophobia lies.

Just so you know, homophobia is the fear, anxiety, anger, discomfort and aversion that some “presumably” heterosexual people hold for homosexual individuals. However, there is a psychoanalytic theory which posits the idea that homophobia is a result of repressed homosexual urges that the person is either unaware of or denies.

It is no wonder that in a study conducted at the University of Georgia, researchers were able to prove that homophobes are nothing more than closet homosexuals. [Original APA Press Release]

Seemingly, both groups of men who claimed to be homophobic and non-homophobic manifested the same reactions to videos showing heterosexual and lesbian interactions. However, when homosexual interaction was shown, homophobes manifested a stronger display of arousal. Apparently, men who claimed to be straight when it comes to sex preference committed a blunder by saying so. These men who are actually manifesting anger to homosexuals have a resentment to admit that they too are attracted to the same sex attributing this reaction to the dogma that the society attach to the homosexuals; thus, the birth of the homophobes.

Homophobes assert that they are “straight” while they could be heterosexual without being homophobic. More than annoyance, I feel pity toward them. I pity them for they don’t have the courage to voice out their emotion and what they truly feel. They turned to be homophobes in trying to escape and suppress their homosexuality. I pity them for they don’t see homosexuals (like them) as blessed individuals – capable also of making change and contribution to the society.

Accompanying the immense studies being done on the issue, the homosexual community has been clamoring to the secular society to accept homosexuality as a viable and legitimate lifestyle but I’m agnostic about it.

I neither encourage homosexuals nor reject them for having those urges. However I scrutinize their choices, deeds, acts, and behaviors on how to handle those urges. Even the Roman Catholic Church welcomes people attracted to the same sex, but teaches that homosexual relationships and sexual acts are sinful.

Homosexuals can be “themselves” without being indecent and unnatural. Attraction to same sex is a normal variation in human sexuality but cross-dressing isn’t. Homosexuality is natural but homosexual acts are not. If you are a homo, act properly and decently and you’ll gain respect without asking or even begging for it.

All of us want a Free and Open Internet!

Over the years, most of us, if not all, have spent millions of hours in front of the computer, inclined ourselves with the advancement and innovations of the modern world, and enjoying free knowledge. Technology, specifically the internet, has been a form of lifestyle that almost all of us adhered to.

But what if all of a sudden, all these free knowledge that we obtain through accessing the internet was put to a halt because of some laws being passed in the U.S. Congess? Can you imagine an entire internet domain, that used to be open and free, being blocked due to seemingly infringing material posted on a single blog or webpage? This is just one of the many controversial underlying issue the Stop Online Piracy Act (SOPA) and its sister Act, Protect IP Act (PIPA) contains.

Wikipedia, as one of the major antagonist of the Acts, said that SOPA expands the ability of U.S. law enforcement to online trafficking in copyrighted intellectual property and counterfeit goods. Provisions include the requesting of court orders to bar advertising networks and payment facilities from conducting business with infringing websites, and search engines from linking to the sites, and court orders requiring Internet service providers to block access to the sites.

In an effort to raise awareness on the issue, the English Wikipedia and an estimated 7,000 other smaller websites coordinated a service blackout, or posted links and images in protest against SOPA and the U.S. Senate bill, PROTECT IP Act (PIPA). In excess of 160 million people who saw Wikipedia’s banner, a number of other protest actions were organized; including Google saying it collected over 7 million signatures.
The Electronic Frontier Foundation, a rights advocacy non-profit group, confirmed the protests were the biggest in Internet history, with over 115 thousand sites altering their web pages.

The protest was effective. Many people logged on to the websites of their Senators that several crashed. In fact, I myself experienced and was affected by the black-out. I was researching then about some articles that can be of help in my assignment, only to find out that Wikipedia is black-out for 24 hours. During those times, I realized how difficult life of people would be if SOPA and PIPA will be approved. Students will go back to the old ways of extracting the limited parchment of encyclopedias and privacy on our Facebook messages is no longer guaranteed.

“SOPA and PIPA are not dead: they are waiting in the shadows,” said Wikipedia co-founder Jimmy Wales. “The internet has enabled creativity, knowledge, and innovation to shine, and as Wikipedia went dark, you’ve directed your energy to protecting it. We’re turning the lights back on. Help us keep them shining brightly.”
Millions of us want a free and open Internet; then let us do our part to make it a haven of knowledge available for all.

SDC crowns Gutierrez as the Ultimate SDC Star 2011


Almera Gutierrez of Bachelor of Science in Hotel and Restaurant Management (BSHRM) was hailed as the Ultimate SDC Star in theSpeech and Drama Club’s lip-synch competition held last

Dec 12, 2011 at the BPSU-DC Covered Court.

The event was participated in by selected students from the BSEd, BEEd, BSCEE, and BSHRM departments. Having the reputation of attracting the crowd in the campus, this year’s contest likewise gathered several spectators as the participants showcase their talents in impersonating renowned celebrities.

Mr. Cyrus C. dela Cruz, Mrs. Carlyzah D. Ocampo, and Mr. Odette O. Estrella from the campus teaching staff comprised the panel of judges for the event.

The unrelenting impersonators showed off their talents as Beverly Avancena of BEEd-IIB started to impersonate Julie Ann San Jose. She proved that the show must go on even after the music untimely went out, and that the quality of her performance shall not suffer despite the technical problem.

The whole audience roared their amusement as Gutierrez, who also received the “Voters’ Choice Award”, performed as CharicePempengco with the song “Pyramid.” The spectators, as well as the judges were also amused by her noticeable resemblance with the international singing sensation. “The whole HRM Department joined forces to prepare for the contest; and without them, I won’t be there, too,” she shared.

After that spectacular performance, other impersonators also entertained and amused the crowd. They were the following: RenzSantos as Nikki Minaj, Carl John Mortil as Shakira, Sheena Regil as Britney Spears, Jordan Pacle as Vic Sotto, and RodjomelIdquival as Scotty McCreery.

The event was organized by this academic year’s SDC officers through the supervision of their adviser Mrs. Noeme M. Nocom. “The preparation for the event was quite tiring yet, seeing the amusement in the faces of the judges and the audience and the satisfaction of our club adviser whose huge support has contributed to the success of the project was compensation already,” Cheska Manalansan, the president of the SDC commented.

Harassment is Not Exclusive for Girls — Miss Pascual

“Basagin na po natin sa isip natin ‘yung konsepto na babae lang ang naha-harass at lalaki lang ang nanghaharass.”

These were the words of Ms. Arlene I. Pascual, Executive Assistant II of the Office of Planning and Development, in a symposium regarding Anti-Sexual Harassment Act: Nature and Prevention held yesterday, Dec. 12, 2011, at BPSU Dinalupihan, Covered Court.

Ms. Pascual conditioned her audience to be comfortable with the subject matter as the seminar delves on Anti-sexual Harassment and reminded them that terminologies such as sex, p’wet, etc., will be taken with utmost professionalism and maturity.

“Kasi tayong mga Pilipino ‘pag sex na ang pinag-uusapan wala na tayong alam gawin kundi mag-crack ng jokes eh.”

Ms. Pascual solicited from her audience images, things, or scenarios that they associate with ‘sexual harassment’. Mr. Ariel Tamayo, a Social Studies instructor readily quipped, “vulgar words”. Others even said “dakma”.

“Normally, ito ‘yung nabubuong image sa atin. Isang lalaking boss, na nagbibigay ng extra attention sa isang subordinate na normally ay babae.”

She explained that sexual harassment is gender-blind abuse of power. It is an intimidation that is sexual in nature that may come physically, verbally, non-verbally, or visually. She stressed that complement is different to harassment because it injures and dishonors human dignity.

Throughout her discussion, Ms. Pascual reiterated that sexual harassment is an “unwelcome or inappropriate promise of rewards in exchange for sexual favors”. She added that the victim does not have to be the person directly harassed but can be anyone who finds the behavior offensive and is affected by it.

In sexual harassment, the harasser may be completely unaware that his or her behavior is offensive. She reminded that it is the recipient who decides whether an action or remark is harassment or not.

Moreover, Mrs. Magdalena A. Abella, Director of BPSU Center of Human Rights Education (CHRE) talked about the legalities and penalties concerning sexual harassment. Penalties include reprimand, fine, suspension not exceeding six (6) months, and dismissal depending on the gravity of the offense. She said that it is best that the student publication publish the Policy on Anti-Sexual Harassment of BPSU so that the student populace may be aware of their rights.

Mrs. Abella initiated the open forum. Mrs. Talavera of the Office of Student Affairs (OSA) raised the question on how to deal with students who are afraid to put their complaints into writing because they are afraid to be retaliated with grade. Ms. Pascual on this note replied, “It’s just a matter of assuring the students that their statement would not be used against them.”

Dr. Estrella remarked in the end that one of the main purposes of the symposium was to pave the way to educate the faculty members on sexual harassment since there were reports against certain faculty members. “Now that the basic knowledge about sexual harassment has been laid off, everybody should be well aware of their actions,” she said.

All the faculty members, administrators and the non-teaching staff were required to attend the two and a half hours seminar.